GENERIC STRUCTURE OF PROCEDURE TEXT

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Seperti halnya pengertian procedure text di atas, generic structure (susunan umum) procedure text juga ada tiga :

(1) Goal (Maksud atau tujuan)
(2) Material Needed (Materi / alat / bahan yang dibutuhkan)
(3) Methods or Steps (Metode / langkah-langkah)
Catatan¬†: Pada procedure text yang berupa How-to (“Pokoknya berjudul how to”), kadang material needed (materi yang dibutuhkan) tidak disertakan. (aturan tidak wajib sih dan bisa diubah2 kokūüôā
 
CONTOH PROCEDURE TEXT – NASI GORENG “FRIED RICE”
Nasi goreng, “fried rice” is a familiar food from Indonesia; if you want to know how to prepare¬†nasi goreng¬†this is the procedure how to make¬†nasi goreng.¬†Just follow this explanation :
 
Ingredients :
  • 350 gr. Long Grain Rice
  • 2 Tbs. Vegetable Oil
  • 3 Eggs
  • 1 Onion
  • 2 Green Chillis, Sambal Ulek or Sambal Badjak.
  • 1 Garlic Clove
  • 1 Leek
  • 1 teaspoon Ground Coriander
  • 1 teaspoon Ground Cumin
  • 250 gr. Chicken meat
  • 250 gr. Shelled Prawns
  • 3 Tbs. Kecap Manis

Steps :

This dish is best made from cold leftover rice, but you can cook a fresh batch and leave it to cool for at least 4 hours. Beat the eggs and make into a omelette, slice into strips and set aside. Heat the oil in a wok or large frying pan. Add the chopped onion, leek, garlic and chillis. Fry until the onion is soft. Add the Coriander and Cumin. Slice Chicken into strips and add with the prawns to the onion mixture and cook, stirring occasionally until they are well mixed. Add the rice, soya sauce and omelet strips and cook for a further 5 minutes.Decorate with some of the leftover leek and serve hot. Enjoy.

PENGERTIAN PROCEDURE TEXT

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Ada tiga definisi “umum” mengenai procedure text : (1)Texts that explain how something works or how to use instruction / operation manuals e.g. how to use the video, the computer, the tape recorder, the photocopier, the fax. (2) Texts that instruct how to do a particular activity e.g. recipes, rules for games, science experiments, road safety rules. (3) Texts that deal with human behaviour eg how to live happily, how to succeed.

Dari keterangan di atas, dapat kita garis bawahi bahwa procedure text adalah (1) Teks yang menjelaskan bagaimana sesuatu bekerja atau teks yang menjelaskan cara menggunakan pedoman instruksi / penggunaan. contoh : cara menggunakan video, komputer, mesin fotokopi, fax dll. (2) Teks yang menunjukan cara melakukan aktifitas tertentu. contoh : resep, aturan bermain game, eksperimen ilmiah, aturan keamanan berkendara. (3) Teks yang berhubungan dengan tingkah laku manusia. contoh : cara hidup bahagian, cara sukses. dll..
The purpose procedural text is to tell the reader how to do or make something. The information is presented in a logical sequence of events which is broken up into small sequenced steps. These texts are usually written in the present tense. The most common example of a procedural text is a recipe.
Tujuan procedure text adalah memberitahu pembaca cara melakukan / membuat sesuatu. Informasi disajikan dengan urutan peristiwa yang logis. Peristiwa tersebut biasanya dibagi menjadi beberapa langkah-langkah terpisah. Teks ini biasanya ditulis menggunakan present tense. Contoh paling umum procedure text adalah resep masakan.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

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Present Perfect Continuous mengungkapkan tindakan yang telah dimulai di masa lalu dan sekarang masih berlanjut. Tenses bahasa inggris ini juga digunakan untuk menceritakan kejadian yang dimulai dimasa lalu dan baru saja selesai.

Penggunaan

1. tindakan yang telah dimulai dimasa lalu dan masih berlanjut sekarang
2. tindakan yang baru saja berhenti

Rumus :
Positif (+)
Subject + has / have + been + verb-ing
Negatif (-)
Subject + has / have + not + been + verb-ing
Tanya (?)
Has/have + subject + been + verb-ing ?

Contoh :
I have been watching TV for two hours (+)
He has been playing football since elementary school (+)
Marina has not been learning english for two years (-)
Have you been reading a book for an hour ? (?)

Keterangan waktu (adverb of time) yang digunakan,
‚Äúfor‚ÄĚ dan ‚Äúsince‚ÄĚ merupakan keterangan waktu yang sangat umum digunakan dalam Present Perfect Continuous tense

Past Perfect Tense

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Kita menggunakan Past Pefect (simple) tense untuk menunjukkan suatu tindakan di masa lalu berkaitan dengan tindakan lain sebelumnya di masa lalu.

Penggunaan :
1. menceritakan sebuah tindakan yang sudah selesai sebelum tindakan lain di masa lalu
2. kalimat pengandaian (Conditional Sentence) Type III
If + subject + Past perfect + would have + verb III
If we had known the answer, we would have told you
Seandainya kami telah tahu jawabannya, kami akan telah mengatakan padamu (kenyataanya kami sudah tidak tahu jawabannya)
3. kalimat tak langsung (reported speech)
Ann: I have searched all the rooms.
George: Ann said she had searched all the rooms.
George : Ann mengatakan bahwa dia sudah mencari semua kamar
untuk pembahasan selengkapnya tentang reported speech dalam berbagai tenses disini

Rumus Past Perfect Tense :
Positif (+)
Subject + had + verb III + (past participle) + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + had + not + verb III + object
Tanya (?)
Had + subject + verb III + object ?

Contoh – Past Perfect tense :
They had been here before 1945 (+)
– mereka telah berada disini sebelum tahun 1945
They had not been here before 1945 (-)
– mereka belum berada disini sebelum tahun 1945
Had they been here before 1945 ? (?)
– apakah mereka telah berada disini sebelum 1945 ?

She had gone to Amsterdam when I called her (+)
– dia telah pergi ke Amsterdam ketika aku meneleponnya
She had not gone to Amsterdam when I called her (-)
– dia belum pergi ke Amsterdam ketika aku meneleponnya
Had she gone to Amsterdam when you called her ?
– apakah dia telah pergi ke Amsterdam ketika kamu meneleponnya ?

Keterangan waktu (Adverb of time) yang umum digunakan dalam past Perfect tense ini :
after, before, already, as soon as, just, yet, until, till, by the time that.

past Perfect tense juga digunakan untuk ungkapan seperti : ‚ÄúI wish‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúas if/though‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúif only‚ÄĚ.
I wish I hadn’t gone there.
aku berharap aku tidak pernah pergi kesana
Jono looked as if he had done something terrible.
Jono tampak seolah-olah ia telah melakukan sesuatu yang mengerikan

Vocabulary tentang Sayur-Sayuran

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vocabulary tentang sayuran

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
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Lettuce
Cabbage
Celery
Corn
Cauliflower
Broccoli
Spinach
Asparagus
Eggplant
Zucchini (squash)
Acorn squash
Butternut squash
Pea
String bean / green bean
Lima bean
Black bean
Kidney bean
Brussels sprout
Cucumber
Tomato
Carrot
Radish
Mushroom
Artichoke
Potato
Sweet potato
Yam
Green pepper
Red pepper
Beet
Onion
Scallion / green onion
Red onion
Pearl onion
Turnip
Parsnip
: Slada
: Kubis, kol
: Seledri
: Jagung
: Kol kembang
: Kubis hijau
: Bayam
: Asperges
: Terung
: Sayuran Zucchini
: Labu biji
: Labu butternut
: Kacang polong
: Buncis hijau
: Buncis Lima (bijinya besar)
: Buncis hitam
: Kacang merah
: Kacang taoge
: mentimun
: Tomat
: Wortel
: Lobak
: Jamur
: Sayur artikok
: Kentang
: Kentang manis
: Ubi rambat
: Cabai hijau
: Cabai merah
: bit
: Bawang
: Brambang
: Bawang merah
: Bawang putih
: Lobak cina
: Semacam wortel

Vocabulary tentang Buah-Buahan

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vocabulary tentang buah-buahan

 

1.       Apple
2.       Peach
3.       Pear
4.       Banana
5.       Plum
6.       Apricot
7.       Nectarine
8.       Kiwi
9.       Papaya
10.   Mango
11.   Fig
12.   Coconut
13.   Avocado
14.   Cantaloupe
15.   Honeydew (melon)
16.   Pineapple
17.   Watermelon
18.   Grapefruit
19.   Lemon
20.   Lime
21.   Orange
22.   Tangerine
23.   Grapes
24.   Cherries
25.   Prunes
26.   Dates
27.   Raisins
28.   Blueberries
29.   Cranberries
30.   Raspberries
31.   Strawberries
: Apel
: Buah persik
: Buah pir
: Pisang
: Prem
: Buah Aprikot
: Buah Nectarine
: buah kiwi
: Pepaya
: Mangga
: Buah ara
: Kelapa
: Alpukat
: Buah kantalop
: Melon
: Nanas
: Semangka
: Jeruk besar
: Jeruk limun (tipis)
: Jeruk limau
: Jeruk
: Jeruk kepruk
: Anggur
: Buah ceri
: Buah Prem kering
: Kurma
: Kismis
: Bluberri
: Cranberi
: Raspberry
: Stroberi

Modern Methods of Teaching Listening Skills

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Interpersonal Activities

One effective and nonthreatening way for students to develop stronger listening skills is through interpersonal activities, such as mock interviews and storytelling. Assign the students to small groups of two or three, and then give them a particular listening activity to accomplish. For example, you may have one student interview another for a job with a company or for an article in a newspaper. Even a storytelling activity, such as one that answers the question “What was your favorite movie from last year?” can give students the opportunity to ask one another questions and then to practice active listening skills.

Group Activities

Larger group activities also serve as a helpful method for teaching listening skills to students. You can begin with a simple group activity. For the first part, divide students into groups of five or larger and instruct them to learn one hobby or interest of at least two other group members. Encourage them to ask clarifying questions during the activity, and you may allow them to take notes if helpful. However, as time passes and their skills grow, you should limit students to only writing notes after the completion of the first part of the group activity. For the second part, have the students sit in a large circle, and then have each individual student share the name and the hobby or interest of the group members that she or he met. This second part of the group activity can also lend itself to additional listening exercises. For example, you may ask students to name a number of the hobbies and interests identified during the sharing session.

Audio Segments

You can also teach listening skills through audio segments of radio programs, online podcasts, instructional lectures and other audio messages. You should model this interactive listening process in class with your students, and then instruct them to repeat the exercise on their own. First, instruct students to prepare for listening by considering anything that they will want to learn from the content of the audio segment. Once they have written down or shared these ideas, then play the audio segment, allowing the students to take notes if helpful. Once they have gained confidence and experience, repeat this activity but instruct students to not take notes until the completion of the audio segment. You can use shorter or longer audio segments, and you can choose more accessible or more challenging material for this type of exercise.

Video Segments

Another helpful resource for teaching listening skills are video segments, including short sketches, news programs, documentary films, interview segments, and dramatic and comedic material. As with audio segments, select the portion and length of the video segment based on the skill level of your students. With your students, first watch the segment without any sound and discuss it together. Encourage the students to identify what they think will be the content of the segment. Then, watch the segment again, this time with sound, allowing students to take notes if helpful for their skill level after the completion of the video segment, you can have students write a brief summary of the segment, or you can take time to discuss as a group how the segment compares with the students’ expectations.

Instructional Tips

Whatever method you use for teaching listening, keep a few key instructional tips in mind that will help both you and your students navigate the learning process. One, keep your expectations simple, as even the most experienced listener would be unable to completely and accurately recall the entirety of a message. Two, keep your directions accessible and build in opportunities for students not only to ask clarifying questions, but also to make mistakes. Three, help students navigate their communication anxiety by developing activities appropriate to their skill and confidence level, and then strengthen their confidence by celebrating the ways in which they do improve, no matter how small.

Source: http://classroom.synonym.com/modern-methods-teaching-listening-skills-2458.html